Ética nos ensaios clínicos em África: percursos, constrangimentos e abordagens qualitativas

  • Angela López Pediatra, Mestre em Saúde Pública, Hospital Central de Maputo, Ministério da Saúde de Moçambique.Doutoranda em Saúde Internacional, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa
  • Philip J. Havik Investigador Principal, Doutorado em Ciências Sociais, Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Palavras-chave: Bioética, ensaios clínicos, métodos qualitativos, etnografia, comunidades, África

Resumo

Os debates atuais na área da bioética e colaborações transnacionais suscitaram preocupações acerca da aplicação de normas internacionais na condução de investigação clínica em África. Geralmente essas estruturas de avaliação bioética estão ainda incipientes ou frágeis na maioria dos países africanos. A importância da aplicação de métodos qualitativos na área da investigação médica, tem como objetivo de melhorar e aprofundar o conhecimento da cultura de comunidades locais, e as suas perceções e práticas. Estes métodos facilitam melhoramentos nos protocolos de investigação, e a sua implementação e avaliação, e a adesão a princípios da justiça e equidade social relativo as comunidades sob estudo. Durante as últimas décadas, o papel das ciências sociais na área da saúde ganhou mais visibilidade em países de baixo rendimento, também em África. Investigadores na área de saúde e agências financiadoras que operam nestes países, estão cada vez mais confrontados com a necessidade de avaliar as implicações éticas para os participantes e as comunidades a que pertencem. Este artigo propõe uma revisão bibliográfica dos percursos e constrangimentos no campo da bioética, centrando-se nos desenvolvimentos em África. Sugere um papel maior para métodos qualitativos, e sobretudo etnográficos, para aumentar a capacidade local e nacional, aumentar padrões de referência e promover investigação socialmente e eticamente responsável.

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Publicado
2019-03-31