A higiene rural nos primórdios da Organização Mundial de Saúde: outra vítima da Guerra Fria?

  • Socrates Litsios Retired (1997) Senior Scientist, World Health Organization
Palavras-chave: Higiene rural, saúde pública, saneamento ambiental, Guerra Fria, Organização Mundial de Saúde


A higiene rural constituiu um grande projeto da Organização de Saúde da Liga das Nações. Os primeiros anos da Organização Mundial de Saúde foram canalizados para o desenvolvimento de programas de higiene rural em vários países e para os incorporar como parte do programa prioritário do saneamento ambiental da OMS. Todavia, nos primeiros anos de 1950, estas iniciativas não conseguiram avançar por vários motivos, entre os quais se situa a importância crescente da Guerra Fria, na política externa dos Estados Unidos.


Não há dados estatísticos.


1. Farley J (2008). Brock Chisholm, the World Health Organization & the Cold War. UBC Press, Vancouver, Canada.

2. Packard, RM (2016). A History of Global Health: Interventions into the Lives of Other Peoples. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA (in press).

3. Litsios S (1997). Malaria Control, the Cold War, and the Postwar Reorganization of International Assistance. Medical Anthropology, Vol 17: 255-278.

4. Borowy, I (2009). Coming to Terms with World Health: The League of Nations Health Organization 1921-1946. Peter Lang, Frankfurt, Germany.

5. Brown TM, Fee, E (2008).The Bandoeng Conference of 1937: a milestone in health and development. Am J Public Health, Vol 98, No. 1: 40-43.

6. LNHO (1937).Report of the Intergovernmental Conference of Far-Eastern Countries on Rural Hygiene. Geneva, League of Nations Health Organization, 1-119.

7. McGusty, VMT (1937). Report on Health and Medical Services, Conf.Hyg. Rur.Orient/15. Geneva, LNHO.

8. Guénel A (2006).The conference on rural hygiene in Bandung of 1937: towards a new vision of health care? Paper presented at First International
Conference on the History of Medicine in Southeast Asia. Siem reap, Cambodia.

9. Hydrick JL (1937) Intensive Rural Hygiene Work and Public Health Education of the Public Health Service of Netherlands India. Batavia, Indonesia.

10. Turner CE (1938) Review of Hydrick’s book, AJPH, Vol 28, No. 7: 885-886

11. Shula Marks, personal communication.

12. Quoted in Farley J (1991) Bilharzia: A History of Imperial Tropical Medicine. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

13. Kark S and Cassel J (1952). The Pholela Health Centre: A Progress Report. The South African Medical Journal Vol 26: 101-104.

14. UNRRA (1946). Epidemiological Information Bulletin, 2, Washington DC.

15. Oral History Interviews with Stanley Andrews http://www.trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/andrewss.htm

16. World Health Organization (1949) Verbatim discussions of the 4th Executive Board, EB4/Min/11 Rev.1,

17. World Health Organization (1947) Draft List of World Health Organization Activities, unpublished paper, M.976/47.

18. World Health Organization (1948) Minutes and Documents of the Fifth Session of the Interim Commission, WHO Official Record No. 7.

19. Hyde VZ Oral History https://trumanlibrary.org/oralhist/hydehvz1.htm

20. World Health Organization (1948) First World Health Assembly, Geneva, 24 June-24 July 1948, Off. Rec. WHO No 13.

21. World Health Organization (1949) Second World Health Assembly, Geneva, 13 June-2 July 1949, Off. Rec. WHO No 21.

22. World Health Organization (1949) Expert Committee on Environmental Sanitation, First Report. Geneva, 12-17 September 1949, World Health Organisation, Technical Report Series, No. 10

23. World Health Organization (1951) Expert Committee on Environmental Sanitation, Second Report. Geneva, 15-20 October, 1951, World Health Organization, Technical Report Series, No.47.

24. World Health Organization (1953) Expert Committee on Environmental Sanitation, Third Report, Geneva, 27-31 July 1953, World Health Organization, Technical Report Series, No, 77.

25. Grant J (1950) diary entry 11 May 1950, Rockefeller Archives Center (RAC), Rockefeller Foundation (RF), 12.1 diaries.

26. Grant J (1950) Public Health Policy – Backward Area Countries of South-East Asia, attached as annex to Grant J Diaries for 1950 (RAC, RF, 12.1 diaries)

27. Grant J (1951) Letter from Grant to Andrew Warren, MD Director of the RF (RAC, RF, Record Group 2, Series 100, Box 513, Folder 3433).

28. UNICEF (1950) Meeting with Dr Cora Du Bois at UNICEF/FEHQ, Bangkok, 1 September 1950. Cora Du Bois Papers (SPEC.COLL.ETHG.D852.C). Tozzer Libary, Harvard College Library, Harvard University, Cambridge MA.

29. Roemer M (1948) Rural Health Programs in Different Nations, Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly, Vol 26, 1.

30. Thorp WL (1950) New International Programs in Health, AJPH, Vol 40, No12, December 1950

31. Hyde H van Zile (1951) Sanitation in the International Health Field, AJPH, Vol41, No1, January 1951: 1-6.

32. World Health Organization (19554) Executive Board 13th session, EB13/min/18 Rev. 1.

33. Dorolle P (1953) Ethnologies et Problèmes Sanitaire, Croix-Rouge, Revue Internationale de la Croix-Rouge et Bulletin international des Sociétés de la Croix Rouge Volume 35, Issue 412.

34. World Health Organization (1954) Rural Hygiene – A Selected Bibliography, A7/Technical Discussions/6.

35. Essex, J (2013) Development, Security, and Aid: Geopolitics and Geoeconomics at the US Agency for International Development, University of Georgia Press, Athens, Georgia.

36. Skiles V (1995) Foreign Affairs Oral History Collection, An Interview with Victor Skiles.

37. Price, DH (2004) Threatening Anthropology: McCarthyism and the FBI’s Surveillance of Activist Anthropologists, Duke University Press, Durham and London.

38. Quoted in Mandler P (2012) Deconstructing “Cold War Anthropology” in American History and the Idea of the Cold War, Uncertain Empire (Joel Isaac and Duncan Bell, eds) Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

39. Schwartz TB (2001), Two Against McCarthyism: me and John P Peters, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, Vol 44, No3.

40. Packard RM (1997) Malaria Dreams: Postwar Visions of Health and Development in the Third World, Medical Anthropology, Vol 17.
Como Citar
Litsios S. A higiene rural nos primórdios da Organização Mundial de Saúde: outra vítima da Guerra Fria?. ihmt [Internet]. 24Jun.2018 [citado 8Dez.2022];15(1):125-32. Available from: https://anaisihmt.com/index.php/ihmt/article/view/87
Políticas e redes internacionais de saúde pública no século XX