Estratégias de intervenção comunitária para reduzir e prevenir o consumo de álcool, uma revisão da literatura

  • Duarte Vital Brito Médico Interno de Saúde Pública. Unidade de Saúde Pública do Agrupamento de Centros de Saúde de Lisboa Central, Lisboa, Portugal Global Health and Tropical Medicine – Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical (GHTMIHMT), Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal
  • Ana Beatriz Nunes
  • Joana Vidal Castro Médica Interna de Saúde Pública. Unidade de Saúde Pública do Agrupamento de Centros de Saúde do Grande Porto VIII – Espinho-Gaia, Espinho, Portugal
  • Sara Lima Duarte Médica Interna de Saúde Pública. Unidade de Saúde Pública do Agrupamento de Centros de Saúde de Loures-Odivelas, Santo António dos Cavaleiros, Portugal

Resumo

O consumo de álcool foi, em 2016, o sétimo fator de risco para a mortalidade prematura e incapacidade mundialmente, tendo sido responsável por 2,8 milhões de óbitos no mesmo ano. O consumo de álcool aumenta o risco de desenvolvimento de diversas patologias, incluindo neoplasias, doenças cardiovasculares e neuropsiquiátricas. A presente revisão de literatura tem como objetivo resumir as principais estratégias de intervenção comunitária para reduzir e prevenir o consumo de álcool, de acordo com o tipo de intervenção. Realizou-se uma revisão da literatura científica indexada na PubMed, baseando-se a estratégia de pesquisa nos termos MeSH. Os artigos identificados foram avaliados para elegibilidade e a extração de dados foi realizada por dois revisores, de forma independente e em duplicado. Com base nos artigos analisados, intervenções das categorias Educação e de mudança comportamental e Legislação, medidas legais, tributação e subsídios demonstraram eficácia na redução do consumo de álcool, enquanto intervenções da categoria Intervenções complexas apresentaram resultados mistos. Intervenções da categoria Intervenção no sistema de saúde, quando levadas a cabo pela indústria do álcool, parecem não ser eficazes na redução do consumo de álcool. Uma estratégia global de prevenção e redução de consumo de álcool deve integrar tipos e contextos de intervenção, priorizando intervenções com efetividade comprovada. 

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Publicado
2019-12-04