Diagnóstico molecular rápido em ambulatório

  • Yulia Smal CEO Europe at Mirai Genomics
Palavras-chave: Teste de diagnóstico, reação em cadeia da polimerase, sequenciação de aminoácidos, tecnologia em ponto de cuidados

Resumo

A tecnologia em Ponto de Cuidado (POCT) revolucionou o diagnóstico clínico com testes mais rápidos e eficientes. O avanço do teste molecular em POCT (mPOCT) combina a agilidade do POCT com a precisão da biologia molecular, permitindo diagnósticos precisos e eficazes. A biologia molecular amplia o espectro de diagnósticos, abrangendo desde infeções respiratórias até doenças genéticas. Os testes de biologia molecular, como a PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction), são essenciais para o diagnóstico rápido e sensível de doenças infecciosas. A evolução de PCR em POCT evidencia sua relevância para ambientes com acesso limitado a laboratórios mais complexos e equipados. Contudo, a eficácia do mPOCT ainda exige formação adequada e seleção criteriosa dos sistemas, visando a simplicidade, robustez e clareza na interpretação dos resultados. Alem disso os patógenos comuns para países em desenvolvimento precisam de ter maior representação nos mPOCT. As tecnologias de diagnóstico mPOC buscam ser acessíveis, simples e portáteis. Este artigo faz uma revisão breve de aspetos tecnológicos que aproximam cada vez mais o diagnóstico laboratorial de referência ao paciente. Começando pelas tecnologias tradicionais como PCR que em tempos revolucionou diagnóstico molecular permitindo a deteção e análise quantitativa em tempo real discutem-se agora as tecnologias que estão a mudar mPOCT moderno. Assim, a PCR digital oferece quantificação absoluta de genes-alvo. Inovações em primers e sondas otimizam a precisão do diagnóstico molecular. A eficácia e custo dos testes moleculares são influenciados pela escolha do detetor, com sensores eletroquímicos surgindo como opção promissora de baixo custo para ambientes com recursos limitados. Técnicas de amplificação isotérmica permitiram baixar as exigências energéticas e restrições de armazenamento de reagentes que são aspetos críticos de POCT. A nanotecnologia potencializa diagnósticos moleculares em relação à qualidade dos resultados e miniaturização. Sistemas microfluídicos compactam várias funções em dispositivos minúsculos permitindo a automação que por sua vez reduz significativamente os erros de utilizador nos testes. Microarrays detectam múltiplos ácidos nucleicos e anticorpos ao mesmo tempo permitindo paneis diagnósticos sintomáticos. Sequenciações de nova e terceira gerações têm potencial completamente substituir todas as outras tecnologias de mPOCT no futuro e já são fundamentais para diagnósticos e rastreamento de epidemias.

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Publicado
2024-01-31
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Smal Y. Diagnóstico molecular rápido em ambulatório. ihmt [Internet]. 31Jan.2024 [citado 12Jun.2024];22(2):54-5. Available from: https://anaisihmt.com/index.php/ihmt/article/view/457